Tag Archives: Hendrik de Cock

Quotable Church History: “If I had to add a single sigh to my salvation…”

This is the eighth in a series on famous quotes from church history.  We’re looking at who said these famous words, in what context, and whether it’s biblical.

By the late 1700s, the Reformed church in the Netherlands had largely become anemic.  Unbelief and liberal theology ran rampant.  There were few gospel preachers and only scattered handfuls of true believers.  Instead, what dominated was the type of religion emphasizing Jesus as the good example for a moral life.  Doctrine was  sidelined, along with the creeds and Reformed confessions.

This was the story in the tiny village church of Ulrum coming into the 1800s.  Ulrum is located in the north-west of the Dutch province of Groningen (one of the two most northern Dutch provinces).  In 1826, Ulrum received a new pastor in the person of Petrus Hofstede de Groot.  De Groot was the typical minister of his day.  In one place he summarized his belief:  “Christianity is no doctrine, it is power, spirit, and life, for the enlightenment, warming, sanctification, and perfection of man.”  His message was moral improvement.  While some delighted in the pablum he offered in his weekly preaching, others in Ulrum saw the sad reality.  Several Ulrum members refused to make a public profession of faith with de Groot as their minister.  Thankfully, de Groot’s ministry was short:  he left to teach at the University of Groningen in 1829, only three years after arriving in Ulrum.

De Groot handpicked his successor.  Hendrik de Cock was his good friend and a like-minded preacher.  He arrived in Ulrum in October 1829.  At first his preaching was much the same as de Groot.  However, he did make some changes.  For example, prior to his arrival, Ulrum consistory meetings were never convened or closed with prayer.  De Cock introduced prayer at the beginning of the first meeting of the year and prayer at the end of the last meeting of the year.  It was a small step.  Nevertheless, despite being a minister and quite religious, de Cock was really no different than de Groot at this time:  both were missing the gospel, and both were lacking in true faith.

One of the members who had refused to make profession of his faith with de Groot was a working-class brother by the name of Klaas Pieters Kuypenga.  In due time, de Cock urged Kuypenga to come by the Ulrum manse for an hour a week to receive further instruction.  Kuypenga agreed.  But what happened was remarkable.  Kuypenga became one of God’s instruments to bring de Cock to true faith in Jesus Christ.  During one of their sessions, Kuypenga remarked to his pastor:  “If I had to add a single sigh to my salvation, I would be eternally lost.”  This language stunned de Cock and it put the proverbial stone in his shoe — he couldn’t stop thinking about what this meant.  In due time, God would providentially bring other factors into play so that de Cock would become a Christian and start preaching like one.  De Cock would go on to challenge the liberalism of the Dutch Reformed Church and be instrumental in a reformation known as the Secession (in Dutch: Afscheiding) of 1834.

One would think it rather obvious that Kuypenga spoke biblical truth to his pastor.  Galatians 3:10 says, “For all who rely on works of the law are under a curse…”  Adding anything from our works to Christ’s work would place us under a curse.  Or one could think of Isaiah 64:6 which insists that even our so-called righteous deeds are like unmentionables in the sight of God.  Furthermore, Romans 3:28 reminds us that “one is justified by faith apart from works of the law.”  We have nothing to contribute to our salvation except for the sin which made it necessary.  The moment you seek to add something to the perfect work of Christ, you are holding to a different gospel, a false gospel which will damn you.  Klaas Pieters Kuypenga had been trained by the Holy Spirit to speak his truth.

It wouldn’t be the last time God would use a regular church member as a powerful instrument to bring reformation.  He did something similar with Abraham Kuyper and a lady named Pietje Balthus.  Both Hendrik de Cock and Abrhaham Kuyper were exceptionally learned men, scholarly pastors — and yet God used these “little people” to turn their worlds upside down for the gospel.  These episodes in church history illustrate that 1 Corinthians 1:27-29 continues to hold true:

But God chose what is foolish in the world to shame the wise; God chose what is weak in the world to shame the strong.  God chose what is low and despised in the world, even things that are not, to bring to nothing things that are, so that no human being might boast in the presence of God.

 


Book Review: 1834

1834 Marvin Kamps

1834: Hendrik de Cock’s Return to the True Church, Marvin Kamps.  Jenison: Reformed Free Publishing Association, 2014.  Hardcover, 512 pages, $43.95 USD.

If first impressions count for anything, this book is a winner from the start.  It has a sharp, handsome look and feel.  From front to back, it’s been professionally produced and that made this reviewer favorably inclined from the start.  The Reformed Free Publishing Association has done justice to the subject by packaging this substantial volume with great care.

The subject is a compelling figure from our Reformed church history in the Netherlands:  Rev. Hendrik de Cock.  He was a leader in the Secession (or “Afscheiding” in Dutch) of 1834.  The Lord worked through de Cock to recover the Reformed faith in the Netherlands after a period of great darkness and decline.  This book traces his story in great detail.  There is no other book like this in English – it is truly one of a kind.

Normally I’d tell you something about the author.  Unfortunately, I don’t know much about him and the book doesn’t say much.  I did have the opportunity to meet Mr. Kamps a couple of years ago in connection with his work in translating the original preface to the Belgic Confession.  I know that he is proficient in the Dutch language and in Reformed theology – I gathered from the Acknowledgements that he is a graduate of the Protestant Reformed Seminary in Grandville, Michigan.  Elsewhere I also learned that he has served as a minister in the Protestant Reformed Churches.

A short review is not the place to tell the whole story of de Cock – that would defeat the whole purpose of writing this review.  It’s enough for me to say that everything seems to be adequately covered.  I’ve read a lot on de Cock, mostly in English, and there were a lot of new things that I learned about him from Kamps.  As I intimated earlier, there’s simply a lot here that you’re not going to find anywhere else.  For example, more than half of the book is taken up with translations of various primary source documents relating to the life and work of Hendrik de Cock.  This cannot be found anywhere else.  Kamps has done the English-speaking Reformed world a huge service by writing and compiling this volume.

The book is strong in highlighting the issues at stake in the Secession of 1834.  The author is insistent that the very gospel was under attack in the Reformed Church.  He makes a solid case for that and then maintains that de Cock and the other leaders of the Secession were zealous to recover the biblical gospel.  Writes Kamps, “The significance of the Secession of 1834 was that it was a return to the gospel of sovereign grace” (238).   Indeed, in a time when the Canons of Dort were forgotten or ignored, the Seceders argued passionately for their restoration and the recovery of the biblical doctrines contained therein.

I also appreciated the manner in which Kamps seeks to apply lessons from this history to the present day.  This might disappoint the reader looking for a “scholarly” approach to de Cock and the Secession of 1834.  While his work will be of benefit to scholars (especially the many footnotes and the primary sources he translates), Kamps is not writing for them.  Instead, he’s writing for ordinary Reformed believers, helping them to understand what the LORD did in their history and what can be gleaned from it for the present day.  In other words, this is a church history book written from the perspective of someone who has a deep faith investment in the subject matter.

That faith perspective is Reformed, but also at times distinctly Protestant Reformed.  Some of his terminology is P.R. (“church institute,” “minor creeds”), but also some of the doctrine.  Readers will especially notice that coming through in chapter 8.  The author is insistent that all the Fathers of the Secession (including de Cock) held that the covenant is governed by election.  The covenant is established unconditionally with the elect and the elect only.  Naturally, Kamps draws attention to this as a way of establishing the pedigree of the Protestant Reformed doctrine of the covenant.  Readers should be aware that this view is in parts of chapter 8, though it is not an overarching theme running through the book.

If I might add a small word of criticism, I find that the author occasionally over-stated the current situation.  As mentioned, he wants to apply the lessons of 1834 to today, so we need to have a handle on the problems of today.  This leads our author to some surprising statements such as, “Today the doctrines of election and the sinner’s depravity are offensive to most people who claim to be Reformed” (232).  Later he opines that election and regeneration are “the two most hated doctrines in the Reformed church community” (237).  “Reformed” is a slippery adjective these days with many of the so-called New Calvinists laying claim to it.  I certainly don’t see a lot of hatred for these doctrines among them or us; in fact, quite the opposite.  That makes me wonder:  does Mr. Kamps perhaps mean to say, “the Protestant Reformed formulation” of these doctrines?

1834 is a masterpiece of Reformed church history.  Well-written and the product of countless hours of research, it was a delight to read.  Even though its author comes from a different ecclesiastical background, we have a shared heritage in the Secession.  As the author acknowledges in the preface, both the Protestant Reformed and Canadian Reformed Churches count Hendrik de Cock as one of their spiritual forefathers.  We can be grateful that our Protestant Reformed friends have taken up the cause of making sure this valuable piece of our shared heritage is not forgotten.