Tag Archives: Angels

Angels and Mission

When it comes to angels, there are two extremes.  One is to treat angels like little gods.  Roman Catholicism does this by encouraging prayers to angels.  Another extreme is to neglect angels altogether.  Neither extreme is biblical.

Historically, the Reformed churches have neither ignored the angels nor given them excessive attention.  If you look at the index of Calvin’s Institutes, two-thirds of a page are filled with references to angels.  This soundly reflects the emphasis found in the Scriptures.  Similarly, article 12 of the Belgic Confession has a paragraph devoted to the Scriptural teaching about the creation and purpose of angels.  However, I don’t think many people have considered how the biblical teaching on angels bears on how we think about the missionary task of the church.

Belgic Confession Article 12

Says our Confession, “He also created the angels good, to be his messengers and serve the elect.”  The angels were also part of God’s created work, though we do not know at what point they came into being.  Regardless, their purpose is clear:  they exist to serve God and his people.  Though they were created good, some of the angels have fallen – these we call the devils and evil spirits.   These hounds of hell “are so depraved that they are enemies of God and of all that is good.  With all their might, they lie in wait like murderers to ruin the Church and all its members and to destroy everything by their wicked devices.”  This means that when we consider our missionary task, there is a formidable array of opponents waiting to destroy everything we try to do.  But, on the other hand, the reverse is also true:  we have a redoubtable heavenly host allied with us as, by the power and grace of God, we break ground for his kingdom.  The good angels serve to build and establish the church.  They are there to facilitate our missionary task.

The missionary task was given to the church by our Lord Jesus in such passages as Matthew 28:18-20.  The Scriptures are clear that the angels must always be considered in connection with him.  They exist to serve the church and its task because they first exist to serve our Lord Jesus Christ.  In popular portrayals, angels tend to be individualistic.  They stand on their own.  However, in the Scriptures, angels are first the servants of God, sent out by Christ and therefore under his authority.   This is clear in a passage such as Mark 1:13 where, following the temptations of Satan, our Lord Jesus was served by the angels.

The Service of the Angels

This service of the angels is a feature of the ongoing spiritual battle with Satan and his minions.  In the Old Testament this is most vividly seen in Numbers 22-24.  Dr. J. DeJong describes quite accurately the scene:  “Particularly the first chapter describes the intensity of the struggle with Balaam first being commanded not to go, and then going, and finally a messenger is sent to meet him, an adversary.  We have here an adversary against the Adversary, an opponent opposing the opponent.”[1]  And, of course, in the New Testament we see this battle with Satan and his angels in the Revelation of Christ to John.  The whole Bible makes it clear that we live in a time of spiritual conflict.  One of the preeminent ways our Lord Jesus fights this conflict is through his angelic armies.  These armies continue to serve Christ as he daily gathers his church from the four corners of the earth.

These angels are therefore an integral part of the mission of the church.  Their involvement is not dispassionate.  Rather, the Scriptures make clear that they are emotionally involved with what is going on.  They share in the disappointments and the joys as lost sinners are brought to their master, King Jesus.   Luke 15:10 tells us that “there is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner who repents.”  When there is joy within the bride of Christ, there is also joy with his servants the angels.   But why?

It’s because, as Christ’s servants, the angels are also participating with the church in the gathering of lost sinners.  Here we can think of their supporting role in the book of Acts.  Angels appear in the very first chapter to comfort and encourage the apostles after the ascent of our Saviour.  In chapter 5, an angel appears to release the apostles from prison so that the intense growth of the church could continue unabated.  He encouraged the apostles to continue preaching to that end.  In chapter 8, an angel goes to Philip and sends him down the desert road to Gaza where he providentially meets the Ethiopian eunuch – thus the gospel begins its journey into Africa.   In chapter 12, Peter is released from prison again by an angel.   Then, in chapter 27, an angel appears to Paul and assures him he will provide a witness before Caesar.

What About Today?

Do the angels continue to form an integral part of the mission of the church?  Though their presence may not be visible to the same degree, we have no reason to believe the angels have withdrawn themselves from the church-gathering work of Christ in this present day.  They serve Jesus Christ and have not stopped doing so.  In fact, the Olivet discourse shows that they will have a role in the last days of this earth:  “And then he will send his angels, and gather together his elect from the four winds, from the furthest part of earth to the farthest part of heaven.” (Mark 13:27).  In their facilitating and guiding the missionary task of the church today, they are preparing for the great last day of our Lord Jesus.

There is an interesting story that has circulated for many years in Reformed churches about a certain preacher in the Netherlands.  If I am correct, the story took place in the 1800s.  This preacher held an evangelistic service in a certain town and then made his way safely home through the dark streets.  A number of years later, a man came to him and told him that he’d become a Christian because of the preacher’s ministry.  He asked if he remembered that dark evening so many years ago.  He did.  He then asked who the other two men were who had been walking with him.  He and a friend were lying in wait to kill the preacher (who had irked them with his message and presence), but the other two had scared them away.  The preacher replied that he had been all alone that evening.  Suddenly, he realized that he had not been alone after all.

Whether or not that story is totally accurate, we can be sure the Scriptural teaching on angels means that missionaries are never alone.  Certainly, we have the Holy Spirit who dwells in us and guides us with the Word.  But we also have the angelic host who protect us.  In so doing, they serve Jesus as he gathers his church through us.  They not only protect, but in ways unknown, they also engage the enemy in offensive battle.  While we do not want to speculate, we do know that the angels are fighting the spiritual war in the spiritual realm – and their victory is assured.

The biblical teaching on angels gives insight and strength, not only to the missionary (and those who support him), but also to the mission congregation.  New believers can know that their struggles are the concern of their Lord Jesus and he will support them with his angels.  But the mission congregation can also find strength in this teaching when they gather for worship.  Sometimes, especially at the beginning, mission congregations can be small.  Such a congregation does not worship alone.  Our Lord Jesus is there with them (according to his promise in Matt.18:20), but we also learn from such passages as Hebrews 12:22 that his holy angels are present too.   In his Institutes (3.20.23), Calvin writes:  “God willed to appoint the angels to care for our salvation.  Consequently, they attend sacred assemblies, and the church is for them a theater in which they marvel at the varied and manifold wisdom of God [Eph.3:10].” An acute awareness of this fact can be an immense support for young believers who often feel the isolation and loneliness which true faith can bring.

The bottom line is that angelology (the doctrine concerning angels) is a matter of comfort for all of us, and also when it comes to our missionary task.  When faced with our spiritual struggles (not against flesh and blood), we can recall the experience of Elisha and his servant in 2 Kings 6:16-17.   They were surrounded by a heavenly army of angels, prepared to fight the Lord’s battle.  Angels continue to do battle today; they continue to serve our Lord Jesus.  A heavenly host is warring together with us.  We know that the power of God is on their side and ours and thus we can have both courage and optimism in our work of proclaiming the gospel to lost sinners.

In different ways, Jesus Christ continues to gather his church:  He sends his Spirit.  He sends men.  He also sends angels.  Thus, the glory belongs not to the angels, nor to us, but to our faithful Saviour, the Shepherd who gathers his sheep.

[1] “Angels and their Role in Pastoral Care,” by Dr. J. DeJong, in Koinonia 19.1 (Spring 2002), p.11.

Calvin and the Angels

“Angels are deployed by God particularly for the rescue and protection of believers.  Calvin has no problem in admitting this, but he cautions against the danger of angels receiving so much attention that justice is not done to the fact that God is the one who saves.  The angels are given to us as servants and protectors, and they are keen on guarding over our lives because they know it is the task God has assigned to them.  Furthermore, they are consciously involved with events on earth and pleased about the salvation of the church.  Angels keep a watchful eye on every moment of our lives, but anyone who lives frivolously or walks down another path than the one which God wills need not expect help from them.  Yet this does not mean that Calvin likes the notion of individual persons having a guardian angel to watch over them; Calvin thinks this is too limited a picture of our angelic help.  God does not appoint one angel, says Calvin, but he orders a whole army of angels to watch over the salvation of every single believer.  The Bible says that angels (he draws attention to the plural form) encircle the believer.  This is indeed a consolation, for in like manner as we have countless enemies, we also have countless more guardians.  Calvin’s critics on this concept of a guardian angel therefore encounter both a biblical and a pastoral argument: why be satisfied with either none or perhaps only one angel when man needs much more help from God and he indeed receives it through this army of heavenly servants?  At the same time, though, Calvin points out that we should not try to investigate how precisely angels do their work.  It is sufficient to know that they are appointed to serve us.  Incidentally, Calvin points out that we are indebted to the work of Christ for the fact that they serve us, for because of the fall angels did not have anything to do with us, but it is Christ who reconciled the angels to us.”

Herman J. Selderhuis, Calvin’s Theology of the Psalms, 137-138

Synopsis of Polanus’ Syntagma (8)

Somebody reminded me the other day that 2010 is the 400th anniversary of the death of Amandus Polanus.  Too bad nobody seems to be planning a Polanus-palooza.  All the world’s Polanus scholars could gather together in Basel and have a great time, all two or three of them.  But seriously, I do think Polanus deserves more attention.  I’m doing my part by continuing this translation of the synopsis of his Syntagma.   We’re at Book V and this is a long one.  Thankfully, he does divide it up into more manageable chunks.  Today’s part deals with creation in general and the angels in particular.

Polanus speaks of the image of God in the angels.  I have not read his full discussion of this in the book — I imagine that he works this out in considerable depth there.  Last week, I mentioned Herman Bavinck and his interactions with Polanus in his Reformed Dogmatics.  Bavinck also discusses this point and cites Polanus.  He does so in a footnote to this statement:  “But Lutheran and Reformed theologians also often have lost sight of this distinction between humans and angels, and called the angels ‘image-bearers of God.'”  Bavinck goes on:

Only a handful, such as Theodoret, Macarius, Methodius, Tertullian (et al.) opposed this confusion.  Augustine expressly states, “God gave to no other creature than man the privilege of being after his own image.”

However great the resemblance between humans and angels may be, the difference is no less great.  Indeed, various traits belonging to the image of God do exist in angels, but humanity alone is the image of God.  (Vol. 2, 461)


Book V

The external works of God are two:  Creation and Providence.

Creation is considered in the following ways:  efficient cause, material, formal, purpose, effects, etc.

The efficient cause of creation is God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.

The material cause of creation is found with the Will, the Goodness, the Wisdom, and the Power of God.

The form of creation is either with regards to the things all creatures have in common, or those things which are proper [or unique] to them.

The proper is either worked from nothing, or formed [from existing matter].

The formation is either making (factura) or forming (figuratio).

The purpose of creation is two-fold:  the ultimate and penultimate.

The penultimate end is in our use in teaching, rebuking, censuring, instructing and comforting.

The effects of creation on the creature are considered either jointly or in its parts.

Jointly, the creation is comprehended in the name ‘world.’  It is considered with regards to efficient cause, material, formation, end, and the things added.

The material of the world is either that from which it was created, or from which it was constituted after creation.

The form of the world is sometimes the world taken together, other times separately.

The form of the world taken together is first internal, then external.

The purpose or goal (finis) of the world is either universal or particular.

The creation considered in its parts is distinguished by way of the days on which they were produced.

The works of the first day were:  heaven and the angels; the internal principles of natural bodies, with their inseparable appearances (accidentibus), space, time, finity, motion; the primal light, and thus the element of fire separated from the other elements; night and day.

Heaven is both the highest and then the starry sort.

The angels are considered either in general or individually.

Generally, the angels are considered in the following way:  1. They are.  2.  They are substantial beings.  3.  Spirit.  4.  Created.  5.  Created in the image of God.  6.  Incommunicable.  6.  Some did not remain upright.  8.  They are not parts of one another.

The image of God in the angels is of two parts:  first it is in the very incorporeal substance of angels.  Second, it is in their excellent properties.

Their properties are:  life & immortality, blessedness & glory.

The life of the angels is either natural or supernatural.

The immortality of the angels is either natural or supernatural.

The blessedness of the angels consists in their wisdom & will, power & freedom.

The wisdom of the angels is observed in their submission, manners, and variety.

The angels individually considered are either good or evil.

In good angels, the name and the substance are to be considered.

The names of the angels are general and proper.

The good angels have a two fold office:  either the works for God or the works for human beings.

The works for human beings are again two-fold:  either dispensing the favour of God and ministering to those who have been chosen to eternal life; or carrying out the judgments of God on human beings.

The judgments of God are carried both in this life and after this life.

The things to be noted of the evil angels:  malice, intelligence, free-will, power, rank.

Thus far with regards to the angels.  What follows concerns the internal principles of natural bodies.