Category Archives: Politics

Honour the Emperor

Social media is both a blessing and a curse, and oftentimes I’m tempted to think it may be more of the latter.  One of those double-edged things about social media is that you get to see what people are really thinking.  It’s sort of like getting everybody drunk without the alcohol.  All their inhibitions are gone, they become impulsive, and start baring what’s really in their hearts.  That can be a blessing — when you see thoughts and words that clearly are fruit of the Holy Spirit.  It can also be a blessing for pastors and other church leaders as you get to understand the areas of growth that are still needed in the lives of those entrusted to our care.  But it can also be a curse when you get frustrated with seeing blatantly unbiblical behaviour amongst God’s people online.

Right now I’m thinking about especially about the way that Christians will sometimes speak about those set over them in positions of authority.  It’s one thing to disagree with the policies, principles or actions of our political leaders.  I disagree with a lot of those too.  But it is quite another thing to disrespect those leaders.  It’s another thing to mock them.  It’s another thing to call them names.  Sometimes it seems as if professing Christians regard politicians as not even being human beings created in the image of God.  It’s as if lawfully elected men and women suddenly lose their humanity and it’s open season on them.  Christians are free to attack them.

This is problematic on two levels.  The first level has to do with the Sixth Commandment, “You shall not kill.”  Reformed believers understand that this commandment is not just about the physical act of killing someone.  It also goes to our attitudes and the roots of murder.  In the words of the Heidelberg Catechism, “I am not to dishonour, hate, injure, or kill my neighbour by thoughts, words or gestures, and much less by deeds, whether personally or through another” (QA 105).  Positively speaking, we are “to love our neighbour as ourselves, to show patience, peace, gentleness, mercy, and friendliness toward him…” (QA 107).  Is the Prime Minister your neighbour?  How about the Minister of National Defence?  Even if you don’t appreciate their policies or their actions, at the bare minimum they are still human beings created in the image of God.  They are still our neighbours and therefore the Sixth Commandment applies.  Does mocking your neighbour honour him?  Does calling your neighbour names show “patience, peace, gentleness, mercy and friendliness toward him”?

The second level on which this is problematic is more specific.  The Fifth Commandment has to do with how we interact with authority.  It’s not just about honouring our father and mother, but also about honouring government.  We are to show “honour, love, and faithfulness” to all those in authority.  We’re also to be patient “with their weaknesses and shortcomings, since it is God’s will to govern us by their hand.” (HC QA 104).  God calls us in the Fifth Commandment to honour and love our government officials, even if they are difficult to love.

This receives further attention in the New Testament.  The era in which the New Testament was written saw many people living under a tyrannical foreign ruler — the Roman Emperor.  The Roman Emperors were corrupt and wicked in many ways.  They were oppressive and they persecuted Christians.  If one were to compare today’s Prime Minister (in Canada or Australia) with, say, Nero, the PM would come off looking relatively alright.  Has your PM burned down the capital and then blamed it on the Christians?  Has he used Christians as living torches for a garden party?  No, I didn’t think so.  That places the statements about the emperor in the New Testament in context.  Statements like what we find in 1 Peter 2:17, “Honour everyone.  Love the brotherhood.  Fear God.  Honour the emperor.”  Yes, that emperor.  Lest we miss the point, the Holy Spirit speaks along the same lines in Romans 13 and 1 Timothy 2.  Even if the Emperor is a wicked man with ungodly values, the Holy Spirit told believers to honour him and pray for him.  The Holy Spirit even went so far as to say that such a man is a “minister of God” (Rom. 13:6)!

I have the impression that many people underestimate the workload of our elected leaders.  Many of them work long hours in civic service.  Many of them put in these long hours out of a sense of commitment to their communities.  Even if they’re not Christians, they do want to make our communities better.  They want to serve.  Whatever their motives may be or how pure they are, we can be thankful that there are men and women willing to do this hard work.  Yes, we need more Christians to step up to the plate as well.  But, for all of us, the Scriptures are clear that those carrying the name of Christ are to respect those in this field.  The world mocks and dehumanizes politicians.  The world glories when they fall and say or do foolish things.  The world dishonours our leaders and treats them with contempt.  Do we see that Christians are called to be counter-cultural here?  Let’s find ways of disagreeing with our leaders, while at the same time loving them, respecting them, honouring them and their service, and praying for them.


Sermon for Day of Prayer

In August 2015, the Free Reformed Church of Launceston asked FRC Baldivis to declare a day of prayer in view of the pressures towards same-sex marriage and other breaches of biblical norms on sexuality and marriage.  FRC Baldivis agreed to declare a day of prayer for the Free Reformed Churches of Australia on 12 February 2017.  I chose to preach on 1 Corinthians 6:9-11.  

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Beloved congregation of Christ,

If our federal government had gotten its way, yesterday we would have gone to the polls to vote in a plebiscite on so-called marriage equality.  We would have been voting on whether or not the Australian government should allow for same-sex marriage.  However, the other parties blocked the plebiscite.  They want to have a free vote in parliament on the matter.  We shouldn’t be thinking that this matter is done and dusted.  Labour, the Greens, and even some from the Coalition are still pushing for a free vote.  It would probably only take a change of Prime Minister to make it happen, and given how often this country has been changing prime ministers in recent years, don’t hold your breath.

Meanwhile, the media is also putting enormous pressure on our society to allow for homosexual people to get married.  While I was in Cairns, I watched a bit of a TV show called Bride and Prejudice.  Maybe some of you have seen it.  It’s about “forbidden marriages,” couples getting married against their parents’ wishes.  One of the couples is two men, Chris and Grant.  Grant is an American, and his parents are supportive.  Chris is an Australian, and his parents are totally against the marriage.  His mom is a Jehovah’s Witness and his ex-military dad is portrayed as just another Aussie bigot.  The show creates sympathy for Chris.  And also for Chris and Grant as a couple.  After all, they have to travel all the way from Australia to Palm Springs, California in order to exchange their wedding vows.  TV shows like this prepared the way for same-sex marriage in North America and TV producers know that this has power to change things here in Australia too.

In August of 2015 the consistory [of the FRC Launceston] sent a letter to the church at Baldivis asking for a Day of Prayer in view of efforts in our nation to allow for same-sex marriage.  The church at Baldivis is the church for calling Days of Prayer.  They considered the matter and agreed to call for a Day of Prayer in our bond of churches for today.  It’s not only because of same-sex marriage, but also because of other pressures on biblical norms regarding marriage and sexuality.  We think of sexual activity before or outside of marriage, pornography, divorce, gender confusion, and so on.  Today, we will pray for our nation.  We’ll pray here in church, but you’re also encouraged to pray at home with your family, and as an individual.  We must plead with the Lord to have mercy on Australia.  We have to beg him to restrain the forces of evil which continue to threaten our national well-being.

But in connection with that, it’s also good for us to be reminded from God’s Word about the norms that God has established for marriage and human sexuality.  That’s why we’re looking at this passage from 1 Corinthians 6:9-11 this morning.  This should be a well-known passage to us.  When we’re faced with the issues we’re facing today, our thoughts should go to what God’s Word says here.  This passage is clear about what’s sinful.  It identifies various sinful behaviours and tells us what the consequences are.  But it also offers hope with the gospel.  Through the good news of Jesus Christ, there is a way for people to be delivered from sin.  There’s not only a way for us to be delivered, but also a way for this nation we love.

The passage tells us of two types of people:  unbelievers and believers.  It shows us not only how they are different in principle, but also how they must be different in practice.  You could say there’s both description and prescription.  And so I preach to you God’s Word from 1 Corinthians 6:9-11 with this theme:  There’s to be a radical contrast between unbelievers and believers.

We’ll consider what characterizes:

  1. Unbelievers
  2. Christians

We sometimes think that our society must be one of the worst that’s ever existed.   Morally speaking, can there have been a worse time in human history?  Knowing your history helps you to keep everything in perspective.  If you know something about the history of Corinth, that helps you realize that the wickedness of our day is more of a revival than an innovation.  It’s a revival of evil, not the appearance of something that’s never been seen before.

The city of Corinth had a reputation, even amongst pagan Romans and Greeks.  It was originally founded in the time of the ancient Greeks, and then re-established in the time of the Roman Empire.  It was a port city and, as a result, also a party city.  It was a place to have a good time, a place to get drunk and go crazy.  Corinth had wide-spread prostitution, male and female.  Some of that prostitution was associated with the worship of Roman gods.  You’d go to a pagan temple and the worship involved sex.  Homosexuality was accepted as normal in Corinth, both for men and women.  Men would often be involved in homosexual relationships with boys.  Marriage was not really respected.  Corinth in the days of Paul was a cesspool of vice and the ugliest forms of paganism.

The gospel came to Corinth sometime in the early 50s.  Paul was part of the way in which that happened, but others were involved too, like Priscilla and Aquila, as well as Apollos.  The gospel came and there were people who heard the good news of Jesus and believed it.  They turned from their sin and turned to Christ.  By the time Paul wrote this letter, the Corinthian church had only existed for a few years – perhaps even only three years.  The people to whom he was writing were still baby Christians.

They were babes in the faith, “infants in Christ,” and it showed.  You just have to read through the first chapters of this letter to see the issues they were dealing with.  There was division and disharmony, infighting.  Then in chapter 5, we find that the church was even tolerating stuff that the world would find disgraceful.  There was incest – a man who called himself a Christian, a member of the church, sleeping with his step-mother.  The church turned a blind eye to it.  No discipline.  Then chapter 6 describes even more ugly stuff in the Corinthian church.  People who called themselves Christians were suing each other in court.  Church members were engaged in lawsuits amongst themselves.  It was shameful.  Look, the problem was not that the Corinthian church existed in the world, the problem was that the world was in the church.  In some key ways, the church was indistinguishable from the world.  In some ways, they were even outdoing the world’s wickedness.

That was the problem that the Holy Spirit was addressing in our text.  It wasn’t the world’s wickedness as such, but the fact that the church was joining in with the world, and in some ways even surpassing it.  It’s a pretty sad situation when the church is living worse than the world.  How can a church like that bring honour and glory to God?

Verse 9 has Paul asking a rhetorical question.  A rhetorical question is one where the answer is obvious.  “Or do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God?”  Of course, they know that!  They know it because Paul and others taught it to them.  When the gospel came to Corinth, the missionaries taught that you have to turn from your sin and turn to Christ in faith.  You can’t keep on living in sin if you become a Christian.  They knew that – they knew it with their minds, but their lives were saying that some of them didn’t know it with their hearts.  They didn’t really know it in the most meaningful way.  So this rhetorical question is meant to remind them.

They’re reminded that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God.  What this means is that the person who lives in sin is not going to receive the blessings of living under God’s rule into eternity.  What it means is that the person who loves their sin and won’t hate it and fight against it is not going to have eternal life.  The person who clings to their sin and won’t let go of it is not going to heaven.  That’s true of people out there in the world, but here the Holy Spirit is especially applying these words to people in the church.  Today it’s still true, also for us:  the unrepentant and unrighteous church member will not inherit the kingdom of God — will not be saved.  You see, what first characterizes an unbeliever, whether in the church or outside, is the lack of repentance.  It’s the unwillingness to forsake sin.

What sin does is deceive us.  That’s why the next words of our text say:  “Do not be deceived…”  Sin is all about deception.  It’s about making you deny reality and live in a fantasy.  Sin came into this world through the deception of Satan with Adam and Eve.  Sin continues to exist because of lies and deceit all around us.  When the Holy Spirit says, “Do not be deceived,” he recognizes that there’s a real possibility that we might be deceived.  We need to recognize that too.  For the Corinthians, they lived in a society dominated by the lies of the devil.  We do too.  The world we live in lies to us constantly.  Do you see it?  Are you aware of the way the world is trying to bringing us away from God’s reality and into fantasies?  Think of that show Bride and Prejudice.  That show wants to deceive you.  It wants you to sign on to the cause of so-called marriage equality because you feel sorry for Chris and Grant.  It wants you to be okay with gay marriage because these men are feeling hurt when Chris’s parents won’t support them.  It plays on your emotions and tries to change your mind through your feelings.  Do not be deceived!  Be aware of the ways that sin lies to us, whether it’s our own hearts, or the lies of society around us.  Loved ones, see the lies for what they are and reject them.

In Corinth, the lie was that you can be a wicked and sinful person, and everything will be okay.  Our city tolerates just about anything.  No worries.  In the Corinthian church, the lie was that you can still live like the world, or maybe even worse, and you’ll still go to heaven, still inherit the kingdom of God.  The lie was that the holy God can’t be all that serious about sin.  In verses 9 and 10, the Holy Spirit emphatically speaks truth to the lie.

He’s finished with generalities.  Now he becomes very specific.  There are specific sins of the Corinthian world which characterize unrepentant unbelievers.  They’re named and we’re not left with any doubt.  The Holy Spirit could have left it vague, but he decided to have Paul lay it all out.  Now before we look at these specific sins, the list is not comprehensive.  Other habitual sins could have been mentioned:  like blasphemy, for instance.  But the focus here is on the predominant sins in the Corinthian context, sins which predominated in the world and were also challenging the church.  Some of these sins are also challenges in our world today.  Unless they repent, all who live in these sins remain under God’s judgment.  They will not inherit the kingdom of God.  Instead, they will inherit his wrath for eternity.

Verse 9 first mentions the sexually immoral.  This is the broadest term the New Testament uses for sexual sin.  It covers every way in which the Seventh Commandment might be broken.  The sexually immoral habitually lust after people they’re not married to – that includes through pornography.  The sexually immoral unrepentantly engage in sexual activity with people they’re not married to.  Sometimes that’s before marriage – pre-marital sex of any kind, not just the sexual activity that normally results in babies, if you get my drift.  Those who are sexually immoral will not inherit the kingdom of God – they will not live with God in fellowship forever through Jesus Christ.

Then Paul mentions idolaters.  Remember that in Corinth idolatry and sex went together.  So there’s a direct connection between being sexually immoral and committing idolatry.  There’s not going to be any room for rationalization:  “Oh, I wasn’t really being sexually immoral because I was worshipping Aphrodite.”  For us today too, we have to realize that sexual sin also involves idolatry.  We may not have a temple to a goddess, but the nature of sexual sin is always worshipful.  Our society has turned sex into a god.  We’re tempted to do it too.  If we buy into that lie, there is no inheritance in the kingdom of God.

Adulterers will also not inherit the kingdom.  Adultery is when you’re married to someone, and then give yourself to someone else outside the marriage.  It usually starts with emotional adultery and then transitions to physical, sexual adultery.  Adultery accounts for a great number of the divorces in our world today.  In the church too, adultery is often the reason behind divorces.  God hates divorce and God hates adultery.  Therefore, he is not going to have unrepentant adulterers in his kingdom.  Are you tempted to commit adultery?  I beg you:  don’t.  If you get stuck in that sin — and it’s easy to get stuck in it — you won’t have a place in God’s kingdom.

Then we have “men who practice homosexuality.”  The original Greek actually uses two terms here.  If you look at the note in the ESV, it says, “The two Greek terms translated by this phrase refer to the passive and active partners in consensual homosexual acts.”  This then refers to people who are actively in homosexual relationships.  It’s not speaking about Christians who might struggle with same-sex attraction, but about those who are actually engaged in homosexual activity.  There’s a long background to the biblical view on this.  Let’s pause here and review that.

Homosexuality appears after the fall into sin.  It was not part of God’s original design for this world.  The first mention of homosexual behaviour is in Genesis 19 with Sodom and Gomorrah.  The men of Sodom wanted to have homosexual relations with Lot’s guests.  That was partly behind God’s judgment on Sodom and Gomorrah.  Now sometimes you’ll hear people say that it was their lack of hospitality that led to God’s judgment, not their homosexuality.  Well, the little book of Jude tells us different.  Jude 7 says that these cities underwent punishment because they “indulged in sexual immorality and pursued unnatural desire.”  You can’t get around that.

The rest of the Old Testament likewise describes homosexual behaviour as an abomination in God’s sight.  Leviticus 18:22 says, “You shall not lie with a male as with a woman, it is an abomination.”  Someone might say, “But that’s in the Old Testament.  It’s in the Mosaic law, so it doesn’t apply anymore.”  Anyone who says that needs to read Romans 1.  There, in the New Testament, the Holy Spirit says that homosexual lusts and activity are dishonorable and unnatural.  Homosexual activity, whether among men or women, is shameful according to Romans 1.  Loved ones, the Bible is clear.  First Corinthians 6 is not the only place that says it.  The whole Bible testifies that God views homosexual lusts and activity as sinful.  When you give yourself over to that lifestyle, you’re not a Christian.  When you commit yourself to identifying as a homosexual person and living a homosexual life, you will not inherit the kingdom of God.

The world around us tells us lies about this.  The Bible tells us the truth.  The Bible teaches us that we can never accept this.  Since it goes against God’s plan for the good of our race, we should do everything we can to fight against efforts to normalize homosexuality, especially in regard to same-sex marriage.  Look, if the Bible tells us that homosexual behaviour is sinful and destructive, then obviously same-sex marriage is too.  If it comes to a free vote in Parliament, we’re going to need to mobilize.  We’re going to have to contact our elected representatives and present the case against it.  Do everything we can.

Let me say one more thing.  Following the biblical teaching on this doesn’t allow for us to be rude or mean-spirited towards our homosexual neighbours.  I know, by holding to what the Bible says, they’ll already think we’re rude or mean-spirited.  They’ll call us homophobic or bigoted or whatever else.  But we’re still to treat people with respect.  People who identify as homosexuals are still created in the image of God.  We’re called to love them, not hate them.  We can’t approve of what they do, but we can still pray for them and be kind to them as much as we can.  We ought to long for the opportunity to share the gospel with them, and to see them believe it and have their lives changed by it.

Verse 10 describes others who won’t inherit the kingdom.  Unbelievers characterized by thieving won’t.  Those who are greedy won’t.  Notice with this one how there’s a heart issue explicitly mentioned here.  Greed is something that lives in the heart and is not always visible on the outside.  You can hide greed.  But if you’re hiding greed in your heart and holding on to it and living with it, the kingdom of God is closed to you.  Drunkards are mentioned next.  If you think it’s okay to get drunk every weekend, you’re not a Christian bound for heaven.  If you think it’s okay to get drunk at any time, the Holy Spirit says you’re out.  Revilers are people who use abusive language.  They treat people with disrespect.  In connection with today’s Day of Prayer, it’s fair to say that if you constantly treat homosexuals (or anyone else) with abusive and hateful language, you will no more inherit the kingdom of God than they will.  Last of all, there’s mention of swindlers.  These are con-artists.  They trick people and defraud them.  As long as they don’t repent, swindlers are also barred from the kingdom.

It’s quite a list and again I remind you of two things:  the list is particular to the situation in that church in that time.  It’s not comprehensive.  You might go through the list and notice that your pet sin is missing.  You might congratulate yourself on still being an heir to the kingdom of God.  You’re deceiving yourself if you do that.  Read the whole Bible and you’ll find that any sin not repented of results in your name not being on the list of kingdom heirs.

Second, let me remind you that it is not the case that having committed any of these sins in the past automatically results in your disqualification from the kingdom.  I’m sure there’s someone here who’s been sexually immoral, who’s worshipped idols, been drunk.  Perhaps some have robbed or swindled.  We may even have people here who have engaged in homosexual activity.  The passage tells us that all these things are sinful, but that’s not all.  It also tells us that you’re only disqualified from a kingdom inheritance if you stay in these sins and don’t turn from them.  If you don’t repent and hate your sin, forsake it, then yes, I have to warn you:  you’re not going to heaven.  But if you hear this and you go, “Oh, I hate it that I did that.  I just hate it.  I hate it because I know God hates it.  I cast contempt on it.  I don’t want to ever do it again.  I want to live in Christ, I want to live for God’s glory.”  If you say that, you have absolutely nothing to fear.  You’re going to receive the inheritance promised to Christians.

That becomes all the more evident as we take a closer look at verse 11.  Here we find what characterizes Christians.

First of all, the Spirit says through Paul, “And such were some of you.”  Christians can have a past.  Some of the Corinthian Christians had a past life.  They used to be characterized differently.  Some were sexually immoral, others idolaters and adulterers.  Some had engaged in homosexual lifestyles.  Some had been thieves, greedy, drunkards, revilers, and swindlers.  They had a past life.  But the past was in the past.  “Such were some of you.”  The word “were” here is crucially important.  They’re not these things any longer.  A change has come.  That change has everything to do with the gospel.  What characterizes Christians is what God has done for them in the good news.

There are three gospel things mentioned in verse 11.

“You were washed” – all those things mentioned in verses 9-10 are dirty and unclean.  When you do those things, you’re filthy in the eyes of God.  That’s true of any sin, not just the ones mentioned in our text.  Sin muddies us, pollutes us, soils us.  We need washing and the gospel is what provides that.  By believing in Jesus Christ, sins are washed away with his blood.  We are made whiter than snow in God’s eyes.  All the filth is gone, and there’s nothing but purity and holiness.  The washing is what God does for believers.  He did it for the Corinthians, he does it for us, and he’ll do it for anyone who takes hold of Christ by faith.  If anyone says, “I’m a dirty sinner in God’s eyes, I need washing with Christ’s blood – O God, please wash me and make me clean”  — if anyone says that, God will hear and answer.  He will wash and purify the dirtiest sinner.

“You were sanctified” – sometimes sanctification in the Bible is speaking about the process of becoming holy.  But there is another way that the Bible speaks about sanctification and that’s what we find here.  This is what we call definitive sanctification.  When God chooses someone, calls someone, works faith in someone, and so on – he is setting that person apart from the sinful mass of humanity.  He is setting that person apart as his chosen child.  All who truly believe in Jesus Christ are definitively sanctified in this way.  The true Christians in Corinth too were sanctified by God, marked as his, set apart as his own beloved people.  Formerly they were enslaved to sin, but now they’re God’s children.  God does that through the gospel.

Last of all, “you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and by the Spirit of our God.”  Justification – I love to preach on it.  This is such a rich and beautiful part of the gospel.  This morning, we can only touch on it.  Justification is God’s one-time declaration that we are right with him because of what Christ has done in his life and death.  When we embrace Jesus as our Saviour, the heavenly Judge declares that we are righteous.  He says that we have everything we need to live with him forever.  We have perfect obedience in the life of Christ has lived for us.  We have forgiveness through the death of Christ on the cross for us.  All of it is guaranteed in the resurrection of Christ.  The resurrection was God’s way of saying that he accepted Christ’s work on our behalf.  The Judge says that believers are right with him, and we’re adopted into his family.  We are heirs of the kingdom of God!  Our Father has bequeathed us his kingdom.  We have this in the name of Jesus Christ our Saviour, and it also comes to us by the Spirit.  The Spirit is the one who gives faith so that Christians take hold of Christ for salvation.

So these Corinthians with a shady past had been washed, sanctified, and justified by God.  The gospel had changed their standing before God.  What characterizes Christians is the incredible work of God in their lives, bringing them to Christ through repentance and faith.

Implied in these verses is the idea that the Corinthians have to be who they are.  They can’t go back to being like the world.  They have to be different, because of what God has done in their lives by his grace.  God has called them to be different.  Christians in the church can’t walk like the world does.  If we’ve been washed, we can’t wallow in the muck.  If we’ve been set apart, we can’t try to erase the distinction God has made with us.  If we’ve been justified, we can’t act like we’re still accused sinners outside of God’s family, living under his condemnation.  So that’s one important take-away from this passage:  if you’re truly a Christian, more and more the past has to be in the past.  That’s a process, but it’s an essential one.  Without that process, no one is a Christian.

Another important take-away from this passage relates to our current situation.  We have real hope to offer this world.  Look at those words again in verse 11, especially at the beginning, “And such were some of you.”  There is hope for change in the gospel.  People’s lives can really be changed, and that happens through the good news of Jesus Christ.  On this Day of Prayer, just think of one or two people you know who are lost.  They’re not Christians.  Perhaps they’re living in one of the ways described in our text.  Maybe it’s a different way.  But they’re without Christ.  They haven’t been washed, sanctified, justified.  Do you know someone like that?  Think of that person.  On this Day of Prayer, I would encourage you to pray for that person by name, intently and specifically.  Pray for God to open their heart for the gospel.  Pray for the Holy Spirit to do his work of regeneration.  Pray for that person to see their sin and misery and their need for Jesus.  Pray that you would have opportunities or more opportunities to share your gospel hope with him or her.  Ask God to give you love for that person, and also courage to speak, wisdom to say the right words at the right moment.  Loved ones, God hears these prayers and he will do surprising things with them.  Expect it.  But pray.  If we want to see our beloved country repent and follow the Lord, it starts with us praying for individual fellow Australians, caring for them, and sharing the gospel hope.  No one is beyond that hope.  The Corinthian church testified to that.  “And such were some of you.”

Loved ones, our world is dark and seems to be getting darker.  You could look at that and just resign yourself to it.  You could be passive and just say, “Oh well, the Bible said it would get worse and worse, so there’s no point in fighting it or saying anything.”  That would be a wicked response.  It’s wicked because it shows no love.  Do you love your country?  Do you love your neighbours?  Shouldn’t we care about the welfare of our land?  If we care, shouldn’t we do something?  Shouldn’t we say what we can when we can to stem the tide of wickedness?  Shouldn’t we at least pray?  AMEN.

 

 


Mockingjay and Reformed Political Theory

Mockingjay

At the moment, the third installment of the Hunger Games series continues to dominate box office sales.  Mockingjay (Part 1) continues the story of Katniss Everdeen as she struggles against the tyrannical Capitol.  I have written about the first installment before, providing the (tongue-in-cheek) “definitive Christian review.”  The latest installment provides even more food for thought.  In fact, Mockingjay provides a powerful illustration of a particular aspect of Reformed political theory.

It has to do with resistance against tyrants.  We can take John Calvin as an example of the theory in writing.  Part of the fourth book of Calvin’s Institutes is taken up with how Christians should view the state.  Calvin also lays out the responsibilities of magistrates.  Almost at the very end, he deals with the question of what should be done with tyrannical rulers.  If you have a king who is sadistic, unjust, a persecutor, and a lover of almost every evil, should a Christian just take it?  Is there no recourse for believers?  Can they revolt?  Calvin’s answer (in Institutes 4.20.31) is that there is a proper and God-honouring way to resist and overthrow tyranny, but it still involves God-given authority.  Calvin’s position is that lower magistrates not only can, but must do what they can to overthrow tyrannical higher rulers.  Says Calvin,

…I am so far from forbidding them to withstand, in accordance with their duty, the fierce licentiousness of kings, that, if they wink at kings who violently fall upon and assault the lowly common folk, I declare that their dissimulation involves nefarious perfidy, because they dishonestly betray the freedom of the people, of which they know that they have been appointed protectors by God’s ordinance.

In other words, lower magistrates are actually obliged to resist tyranny and overthrow it if necessary.

A classic illustration of this is found in the Dutch Revolt.  During the mid-sixteenth century, the Spanish were in control of what we today call the Netherlands and Belgium.  The Spanish were tyrannical to a fault.  They were brutally oppressive, especially towards Reformed believers.  However, Reformed folk did not take it passively.  There was a strong resistance movement and it was led by lower magistrates from across the Low Countries.  Men like William of Orange resisted the Spanish and made war against them.  Eventually, these efforts were successful and freedom was secured, at least in the northern part of the Low Countries.  Were the Dutch wrong to rebel against the Spanish?  No, it was not a rebellion in the sense of overthrowing authority.  Instead, it was lawfully constituted authorities leading a lawful revolt against godless tyranny.

We see the same thing happening in Mockingjay (Part 1).  President Snow and the Capitol are clearly tyrannical.  They oppress the districts and exact tribute from them (human tributes who serve for the entertainment of the Capitol).  But there is a revolt underway and it takes place under the auspices of District 13.  District 13 was thought by many to have been obliterated.  It turns out that the district still exists and has a strong internal government led by President Coin.  President Coin is leading the revolt against the Capitol.  Consequently, from a Reformed perspective, the revolt portrayed in Mockingjay is a lawful endeavour.  In fact, President Coin is doing what she is obliged to do.  It would be wrong for her not to revolt against the Capitol.  I doubt Mockingjay intends to illustrate “Calvinist resistance theory,” but it does so nonetheless, at least to a certain degree.  To illustrate it fully, the characters involved would have to commit their cause to God and seek to carry it out for his glory.  Regrettably, the world of Katniss Everdeen, even in District 13, is a godless and unbelieving society.  All there is in the world portrayed is the horizontal plane.   Therefore, the illustration only works to a point.

Tyranny is always a threat.  We would be naive if we thought that we or our descendants will never be faced with it again.  If we should come to live under the jackboot of some oppressive, tyrannical power, how should we respond?  Because of our history, Reformed believers have given extensive thought to this question and we have an answer readily at hand.  We should never passively accept tyranny, but at the same time we must never reject authority.  This is why it is crucially important for Christians to be involved in politics.  We need believing people in positions of authority, not only for the influence they bear now, but also for the leadership they can provide if and when tyranny must be resisted and overthrown.